MOUNT RINJANI TREKKING INFORMATION
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Mount Rinjani or
Gunung Rinjani is an active volcano in Indonesia on the
island of Lombok. Administratively the mountain is in the
Regency of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian:
Nusa Tenggara Barat, NTB). It rises to 3,726 meters (12,224
ft), making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia.
On the top of the volcano is a 6 km by 8.5 km caldera, which
is filled partially by the crater lake known as Segara Anak
(Child of the Sea). This lake is approximately 2000 meters
above sea level and estimated at being around 200 meters
deep, the caldera also contains hot springs.
The highlands are forest clad and mostly undeveloped. The
lowlands are highly cultivated. Rice, soybeans, coffee,
tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, and vanilla are the major crops
grown in the fertile soils of the island.
The volcano and the caldera are protected by the Gunung
Rinjani National Park established in 1997. Tourism is
increasingly popular with trekkers able to visit the rim,
make their way into the caldera or even to make the more
arduous climb to the highest point fatalities, however, are
not uncommon. As of July 2009 the summit route was closed
due to volcanic activity.
Gunung Rinjani National Park is located on the island of
Lombok, Indonesia. The park covers about 413 km˛ and
consists of mountainous areas. Mount Rinjani (Gunung Rinjani),
which is the third highest mountain of Indonesia (3.726 m),
is located in this national park, giving this park its name.
Some of endangered plants are protected in this national
park, such as: Pterospermum javanicum, Swietenia macrophylla,
Ficus superba, Toona sureni, Vanda sp., Usnea sp and
There are also several endangered fauna protected in this
national park, including rusa deer, indian muntjac, Sunda
Porcupine, surili monkeys, Helmeted Friarbird, several
cockatoos and Scaly-crowned Honeyeater.
A prestigious 2004 and 2008 World Legacy Award for environmental and
social leaders in tourism was given to the Rinjani Trek
Management Board by Conservation International (CI) and
National Geographic Traveler magazine, in a ceremony at the
National Geographic Society in Washington DC on 8 June 2004.
The Rinjani Trek in Gunung Rinjani National Park in Lombok
Indonesia was the winner of the Destination Stewardship
Award, selected as a tourism destination that best
demonstrates effective protection of its natural and
The Rinjani Trekking was lauded in the award citation as “a
place doing superb work in protecting its overall natural
and cultural heritage, the volcanic heart of the island of
Lombok, Indonesia”. Visitors to this tropical island enjoy
long jungle treks to the awe-inspiring crater valley,
waterfalls and hot springs, and emerge from the forest
canopy to enjoy an amazing panoramic ocean view.
The Rinjani program is exemplary for its strong partnership
among local community groups, tourism industry and national
park, and has successfully withstood the recent deep dip in
The Rinjani mountain is the second highest peak active
volcano in Indonesia and absolutely a challenging mountain
walk and you must be prepared with good equipment, warm and
windproof clothing if you want to make adventure trekking to
the summit of Rinjani mountain 3726 m. Trekking to Rinjani
mountain lombok Indonesia can attract severe storms,
lightening and strong winds. When the weather is settled,
the sun is intense and the nights frosty. Parts of the trail
are steep and slippery.
Beware of bad weather and risks of exposure to the wet and
cold (hypothermia). If caught in an electrical storm, take
shelter and avoid prominent ridges. Beware of snakes, and
stinging insects and plants. Leeches can be a nuisance in
the wet season.
meters (12,224 feet)
This is a very active volcano. The oldest recorded
historical eruption was in 1847. Previous to that this was a
very remote region indeed, hence the lack of records.
There was a spate of activity from 1994 to 1995 which
resulted in the further growth of the crater cone Gunung
Baru, since renamed Gunung Barujari (Finger Mountain).
On 27 April 2009 Gunung Barujari became active again with
that activity continuing through to May 2009. The summit
ascent routes were closed at that time as the eruptions
intensified with plumes of smoke and ash as high as 8,000 m.
A Volcanic Explosively Index (VEI):2 rating was issued for
the activity between May and December 2009. The ascent
routes re-opened on September 14th 2009 but hiking routes
down into the crater lake were still deemed unsafe and
In February 2010 observers at the Gunung Rinjani Observation
Post detected a smoke plume that rose 100 m from the
volcano. The activity in early 2010 is centered about Gunung
Barujari. On May 1st 2010 a column of smoke was again
observed rising from Rinjani issuing eruptions 1,300-1,600
meters tall with thick brown color and strong pressure. On
May 5th 2010 a possible ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5
km (18,000 ft) and drifted 150 km NW. Accordingly the Center
of Volcano logy and Geological Hazard Mitigation advised
that intermittent activity could produce ash plumes to 1,500
m (5,000 ft) above the caldera. In light of this The
Volcanic Explosively Index Alert Level was raised to 2 with
a recommendation that there be no activity within a radius
of 4 km from the eruption at Gunung Barujari.
Rinjani erupted three further times on 23 May 2010 with
activity continuing until 24 May 2010. According to the
volcano's official monitoring agency, ash from Mount
Barujari was reported as rising up to 2 km into the
atmosphere and damaged crops. Lava flowed into the caldera
lake, pushing its temperature up from 21°C to 35°C, while
smoke spread 12 km. The volcano did not directly threaten
villagers during any of the eruptive activity in early 2010
however access to some sections of the Mountain was
officially closed or restricted at some times.
The lower and mid levels of the mountain are quite heavily
forested. Above the tree line though the slopes are barren
and rugged screed slopes and volcanic rock. The views of the
crater lake are quite breath-taking from the caldera rim, as
is the sunrise. From the absolute peak you can see Bali to
the west and Sumbawa to the east.
Flora and fauna
The lower and middle elevation slopes are densely forested
with typical tropical species. Fig trees are especially
apparent. Casuarinas forest (cemara) takes over higher up
and eventually these give way to an alpine flora above the
Lombok is east of the Wallace an Line and some Australian
bird species are therefore apparent. These include a lot of
sulphur crested cockatoos and green hanging parrots. Bird
life is generally not easy to observe here though due to the
density of the forest.
The familiar long-tailed grey macaque (the Bali temple
monkey) is common right up to the crater rim. Of much more
interest is the rare ebony leaf monkey which inhabit these
forests. Rusa deer and muntjacs are more often heard than
Rinjani is best climbed during the April-November dry
season. It is possible to climb during the rainy season as
well but treks are often cancelled at short notice if the
rain is heavy. It gets very cold on the mountain above 2,000
m and nears freezing at the summit. Warm clothing is an
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